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Difficulty 4

What is the difference between “out of order” and “not in order”?

Rather quietly, recent Robert’s have replaced almost every instance of “out of order” with the phrase “not in order.” The 12th Edition even changes “out of order” from recommended to alternative language. RONR (12th ed.) 4:17. Robert’s is clear, however, that the phrase “You are out of order,” is never appropriate, as the focus should remain on the member’s motion or behavior, and not the individual. RONR (12th ed.) 4:17.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what are the three situations in which a main motion requires greater than a majority vote?

(1) If the bylaws or special rules of order require more than a majority vote;
(2) if the motion would have the effect of suspending a rule of order or a parliamentary right of members; or
(3) if the motion would have the effect of changing something already adopted. RONR (12 ed.) 10:8(7).


What is the distinction between a "President-Elect" and a "President Elect," according to Demeter's Manual?

"A president-elect (with hyphen) is the organization's newly elected president who has not yet been formally installed in office. A president elect (no hyphen) is an officer chosen at the previous election, and is the organization's pre-elected next president." Demeter, p. 255.


Your organization is planning to rewrite its bylaws for purposes of clarity as well as to make substantial changes. The bylaws committee plans to submit a revision. What vote is required to adopt the revision if your parliamentary authority is The' Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Ed.)("Sturgis")?

Majority. "A revised set of bylaws requires only a majority vote for adoption." The Standard Code, p. 209.


You are the member of a committee in an organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). You disagree with the committee's recommendations and wish to speak against the committee report when it comes to the floor and to bring forward issues that you feel the committee did not give enough weight to during discussion. Can you speak against the committee report, and can you discuss the issues the committee overlooked?

Yes, you can speak against the committee report. However, you cannot make reference to what occurred during the committee's discussion of the issue. "But in debate on any written or oral report in the assembly, any member of the reporting committee who does not concur has the same right as any other member of the assembly to speak individually in opposition. No one can make allusion in the assembly to what has occurred during the deliberations of the committee, however, unless it is by report of the committee or by unanimous consent. RONR (12 ed.) 51:65.


Prepare a teller's report under Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) for the following election:

There are 1,000 members of the association. 500 delegates are present at the convention. Only 400 delegates are present at the meeting during the election. A quorum is present.

There were 3 official candidates for Secretary: Jim Jones, who received 30 votes, Tim Turner, who received 125 votes; and Bob Blue, who received 165 votes. A number of delegates do not like any of the candidates. As a result, 10 ballots that were returned are completely blank. Mickey Mouse (the cartoon character) received 20 votes.

Was any candidate elected on this ballot?

Tellers' Report for Election

Number of Votes cast . . . . . . . . .340
Necessary for Election . . . . . . . .171
Bob Blue received . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Tim Turner received . . . . . . . . . .125
Jim Jones received . . . . . . . . . . 30

Illegal votes
Mickey Mouse (ineligible) . . . . . . . 20

No, a candidate was not elected on this ballot.

See Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) § 45:31-41.


Your organization uses Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as its parliamentary authority. A main motion is under consideration. The previous question is moved, seconded, and adopted. Are you permitted to obtain the floor at this point and move that the vote on the main motion be taken by ballot?

Yes. Motions relating to methods of voting and the polls are incidental motions and "can be moved while an order for the Previous Question is in effect on the votes to which they apply." RONR (12 ed.) 30:3(1).


The motion on the floor at a meeting following Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) is that the "national headquarters building be sold for $100,000."  An amendment is proposed to strike "$100,000" and to insert "$125,000." A motion to create a blank as to the dollar amount is proposed and passes. Other dollar figures made to fill the blank are $90,000 and $110,000. What order should these figures be voted on in order to fill the blank?

Filling a Bland with Amounts of Money: "[W]henever a logical order is apparent, to arrange the proposed entries so that the one least likely to be acceptable will be voted on first, and so on. New supporters may then be gained with each succeeding vote until a majority in favor of one entry is reached. . . .  In the case of such a motion--to accept a sum of money in settlement--the amounts being considered should be arranged and voted on in order from the smallest to the largest." RONR (12th ed.) 12:109-109.

As a result, the figures should be voted on in the following order: $90,000; $100,000; $110,000; $125,000.


You are attending the regular monthly meeting of an organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A motion is being debated when a member moves to adjourn. The chair takes the vote on the motion to adjourn and announces that the "ayes have it." Before actually declaring the meeting adjourned, a member obtains the floor and moves that "when the meeting adjourns, it adjourn to meet here next Thursday at 7:00 p.m." Is the motion in order?

Yes. The privileged motion to Fix the Time to Which to Adjourn "can be moved even after the assembly has voted to adjourn, provided that the chair has not yet declared the assembly adjourned." RONR (12th ed.) 22:6(1).


You are at a convention that earlier in the same day passed an important main motion. A member moves during the afternoon to Rescind the motion passed that morning.  Another member raises a Point of Order and states that the motion to Rescind is out of order in that the motion can be dealt with by the motion to Reconsider. Is the point of order well taken if your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No, the Point of Order is not well taken.  The motion to Rescind is not in order if "it has previously been moved to reconsider the vote on the main motion, and the question can be reached by calling up the motion to Reconsider."  Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?  §35 (p. 308).  In the present case, no motion to reconsider was previously moved, and either the motion to reconsider or the motion to rescind would be in order.


Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law  uses the mnemonic "S-H-I-P" as a reminder of the subjects to which a member can raise a question of privilege. What does each letter stand for in the catchword "S-H-I-P"?

S-H-I-P = S-safety; H-health; I-integrity, and protection of P-property. Demeter, p. 106.


The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis") recognizes that one use of the motion to suspend the rules is to "cancel out everything that has been done" on a motion when "the parliamentary situation in a meeting becomes so confused that neither the chair nor the members can figure out how to proceed." What is the name given to this use of the motion to suspend the rules?

The "Gordian Knot" Motion, p. 86.


You are at a special meeting of a church congregation called for the purpose of considering whether or not to sell a piece of church property. During discussion of the only business to be considered at the meeting, a member obtains the floor and moves to table the motion for which the meeting was called. Is the motion to Table in order if your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No, the motion to table is not in order. "At a special meeting (39), it is dilatory and out of order to move to lay on the table the matter for which the meeting has been called." RONR (12th ed.) 17:14.


Your organization's bylaws require the nomination and election of officers to be considered at the May meeting. You are responsible for preparing the agenda for the May meeting. Where should the nomination and election of officers be placed in the order of business, if your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

"Matters that the bylaws require to be considered at a particular meeting, such as the nomination and election of officers, may be regarded as special orders for the meeting and be considered under the heading of Special Orders in the order of business." (In other words, after Reports of Special Committees, but before Unfinished Business and General Orders.) RONR (12th ed.) 41:20.


Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) distinguishes between ordinary standing rules and convention standing rules. What is the vote required to adopt such rules and to suspend such rules?

Ordinary standing rule--majority to adopt, suspended temporarily by majority vote.

Convention standing rule--majority or two-thirds to adopt (depending on whether adopted as a "package" or individually and on the nature of the rule), suspended temporarily by majority vote.

RONR (12th ed.) 2:14-24.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), which of the following items should be included in minutes, if you are relying only on Robert's?

Notices of motions,
Names of members present,
Date and time of meeting,
All main motions and the wording in which each motion was adopted,
Debate by members,
Names of movers of motions,
Names of seconders of motions,
The time of adjournment

RONR (12th ed.) 48:

Notices of motions – Yes
Names of members present – No
Date and time of meeting – Yes
All main motions and the wording in which each motion was adopted – Yes
Debate by members – No
Names of movers of motions – Yes
Names of seconders of motions – No
The time of adjournment - Yes


Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) states that in organizations with employees, the assembly or board can give instructions to an employee in a form very similar to a resolution, except the word "Resolved" is replaced with what word?

"Ordered." RONR (12th ed.) 10:24.


According to The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis"), the motion to reconsider can only be applied to what type of motion? Why?

Under The Standard Code, “The motion to reconsider can be applied only to the main motion. The same result is accomplished for all other motions by more simple and direct means. Other motions that have lost can be proposed again or renewed as soon as, in the judgment of the presiding officer, the vote might result differently. Other motions that have carried can be changed easily by procedural motions." The Standard Code, page 39.


A main motion is pending at a meeting following Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as follows: "That the organization support the candidacies of Able, Brown, Charles, and David." A motion is made to amend the motion by striking the word "Charles." Can this amendment now be amended?

No. The motion to amend by striking out certain words can be amended only by striking out words from the primary amendment.  "As a consequence of the rule stated at the beginning of this paragraph, a primary amendment to strike out a single word cannot be amended." RONR (12th ed.) 12:49.


A particular convention standing rule was adopted by a two-thirds vote (following Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)). What vote is required to suspend the rule for a particular specified purpose?

"Any standing rule of a convention (except one prescribing the parliamentary authority) can be suspended for a particular specified purpose by a majority vote, even if the rule required a two-thirds vote for its adoption. Under such a suspension, however, the applicable rules in the parliamentary authority prescribed by the bylaws (or by a rule of the convention) come into force--as if the standing rule had not been adopted." RONR (12th ed.) 59:37.


If your parliamentary authority is The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Ed.)("Sturgis"), can an officer be a candidate for another office without resigning the first office?

"Unless the bylaws provide otherwise, a member who holds an office may be a candidate for another office, but if the member is elected to and accepts an incompatible office, the former office is forfeited." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, p.154.  


You are attending the monthly meeting of an organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A motion is made to "purchase a new office desk at a cost not to exceed $1,500." An amendment is proposed to strike the number "$1,500" and to insert "$1,000." A secondary amendment (an "amendment to the amendment") is proposed to strike "$1,000" and to insert "$750." At this point, a member gains the floor and moves "to create a blank by striking out of the pending motion the dollar figure." Another member immediately raises a point of order that there cannot be three amendments on the floor at the same time. Is the point of order well taken?

No. "Although the motion to create a blank may appear to resemble a motion to amend by striking out and inserting, it is in fact an incidental motion (see 6:15). . . . The motion to create a blank . . .  can also be made and voted on while a primary or a secondary amendment relating to the subject specification is pending." RONR (12th ed.) 12.  


The phrase, "The next order of business is . . .," should never be used, according to Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law. Why?

"The phrase 'the next business in order' is correct; the phrase 'the next order of business' is incorrect."            

"Note: To say 'the first order of business,' or 'the next [or, the third] order of business,' is like saying 'the first week of the day,' or 'the next [or, the third] year of the month,' or 'the next [or, the third] ball game of the inning.'  The assembly has but one order of business--the various categories or items of business as listed under an order of business are to be acted on in that scheduled business order.  Hence say: 'the first business in order,' 'the next business in order,' 'the last business in order,' and not 'the first order of business,' or 'the second order of business,' etc.  It is a gross error to say 'the first order of business,' and the like." Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law, p. 15.  



A homeowners association holds one meeting (the "Annual Meeting") a year. Can the motion to Postpone to a Certain Time be adopted by such a group, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

Yes, but only if the motion does not postpone the matter beyond the current session. "In a case where more than a quarterly time interval (see 9:7) will elapse between meetings (for example in an annual convention of delegates or in a local society that holds only an annual meeting), a question cannot be postponed beyond the end of the present session." RONR (12th ed.) 14:6. 


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what information should be contained in the first paragraph of the minutes of a meeting?

"(1) the kind of meeting: regular, special, adjourned regular, or adjourned special;
 (2) the name of the society or assembly;
 (3) the date and time of the meeting, and the place, if it is not always the same;
 (4) the fact that the regular chairman and secretary were present or, in their absence, the names of the persons who substituted for them; and
 (5) whether the minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved--as read, or as corrected--and the date of that meeting if it was other than a regular business meeting. Any correction approved by the assembly is made in the text of the minutes being approved; the minutes of the meeting making the correction merely state that the minutes were approved 'as corrected,' without specifying what the correction was (see first paragraph of form, 48:8)." RONR (12th ed.) 48:4.


An organization's bylaws provide for a parliamentary authority of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), but no method for amending the bylaws. How can the bylaws be amended and by what vote?

"If the bylaws contain no provision for their amendment, they can be amended by a two-thirds vote if previous notice (in the sense defined in 10:44) has been given, or they can be amended by the vote of a majority of the entire membership." RONR (12th ed.) 56:50.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), which incidental motion does NOT require a second, but does require a two-thirds vote? 

Objection to the Consideration of a Question. RONR (12th ed.) 26:2.


You are attending a meeting that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) to the letter. A member moves to Reconsider an earlier vote on an objection to the consideration of a resolution. Another member raises a Point of Order that it is not in order to reconsider the vote on an objection to consideration. Who is right?

Not enough information to answer because we don't know if the objection to consideration was adopted or rejected. "A negative vote--that is, a vote sustaining the objection--can be reconsidered, but not an affirmative vote." RONR (12th ed.) 26:2(8).


Name at least two parliamentary steps that are in order even after an assembly has voted to adjourn, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition).

To inform the assembly of business requiring attention before adjournment;
to make important announcements;
To make (but not to take up) a motion to reconsider a previous vote;
to make a motion to Reconsider and Enter on the Minutes;
to give notice of a motion to be made at the next meeting (or on the next day, in a session consisting of daily meetings) where the motion requires previous notice (see 10:44-51); and
to move to set a time for an adjourned meeting (9, 22) if there is no meeting scheduled for later within the same session.

RONR (12th ed.) 21:10.


An organization wishes to elect a well-known accountant as its elected treasurer, but the individual is not eligible for membership in the organization. The bylaws have no provisions on qualifications for office. Can a non-member be elected as an officer, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?


"In most societies it is usual to elect the officers from among the members; but in all except secret societies, unless the bylaws provide otherwise, it is possible for an organization to choose its officers from outside its membership." RONR (12th ed.) 47:2.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how should an adjourned meeting begin?

"An adjourned meeting takes up its work at the point where it was interrupted in the order of business or in the consideration of the question that was postponed to the adjourned meeting, except that the minutes of the preceding meeting are first read." RONR (12th ed.) 9:19.  



You are a member of and the presiding officer at a large monthly meeting that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). You have been told that you can only vote to break a tie. Is this a correct statement of the rules regarding voting by a presiding officer?

No. "If the presiding officer is a member of the assembly, he can vote as any other member when the vote is by ballot (see also 45:28). In all other cases the presiding officer, if a member of the assembly, can (but is not obliged to) vote whenever his vote will affect the result--that is, he can vote either to break or to cause a tie; or, in a case where a two-thirds vote is required, he can vote either to cause or to block the attainment of the necessary two thirds." RONR (12th ed.) 44:12.



Your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Name at least three motions that are not debatable but are amendable.

Any of the following motions:

Amend an udebatable motion
Arrange order of consideration of bylaw amendments
Consider by paragraph or Seriatim
Division of a Question
Fix the Time to Which to Adjourn (when privileged)
Limt or Extend Limits of Debate
Motions relating to methods of voting and the polls
Motions relating to nominations
Recess (when privileged)
Take measures to obtain a quorum (when privileged)

RONR (12th ed.) Charts, Tables & Lists, t47.


Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) provides for an "adjourned meeting," which is a continuation of a regular or special meeting. What is the term given to such a continuation of a meeting in The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure?

"Continued meeting." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, p. 104.


A member has appeared at the annual meeting and demands to vote in the elections, even though he is several months behind in his membership dues (and has failed to respond to two letters demanding immediate payment). The bylaws have nothing to say about this issue. Your organization's parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Can the member vote?

Yes. "A member of a society who is in arrears in payments of his dues, but who has not been formally dropped from the membership rolls and is not under a disciplinary suspension, retains the full rights of a voting member and is entitled to vote except as the bylaws may otherwise provide." RONR (12th ed.) 45:1.


The secretary is absent from a meeting that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Who should fulfill the secretary's duties at the meeting, including taking the minutes? The bylaws are silent on this issue, but the organization also has a financial secretary and an executive secretary. Should one of these officers be an automatic replacement? 

"In the absence of the secretary, a secretary pro tem must be elected; the corresponding, financial, or executive secretary in organizations having such officers is not an automatic replacement." RONR (12th ed.) 47:34. In practice, what often happens and is appropriate is that a person is selected by the presiding officer and "without objection" (unanimous consent) acts as secretary for the meeting.


Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure describes a type of absentee voting by which a member agrees with a member who would have voted opposite to the first member not to vote, which is used in Congress and some state legislatures. What is the name of this type of absentee voting?

"Pairing." Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure (2000 Edition) § 538, p. 385.


Under The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis"), what vote is required to demand that an indecisive voice or hand vote be counted?  

None. A single member can make such a demand. "Effect of Call for Division of the Assembly. To require the presiding officer to take a standing vote on the motion just voted on and to count the votes if there is any doubt as to which side prevails." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition), p. 100.


You are a delegate at a convention that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Two bylaws proposals have been noticed for consideration concerning dues--one to set the annual dues at $100 per member and one to have varying amounts of annual dues based on membership factors. These two proposals represent different approaches to solve the same problem. After extensive debate, the proposal to set the annual dues at $100 per member passes. Does the other bylaws proposal still need to be considered? 

Yes. "The rule that, when a main motion is adopted, no other conflicting main motion is thereafter in order is not applicable to the motion to amend the bylaws, since several notices of proposals representing different approaches to the same problem may have been given, and all such bylaw amendments are entitled to be considered.'" RONR (12th ed.) 57:1.


Your parliamentary authority is The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis"). A main motion has been moved and seconded. The maker of the motion chooses not to speak to the motion. The first person called upon for discussion moves to close debate. Is the motion to close debate in order, given that there has been no debate whatsoever?

Yes. "If the motion to close debate is proposed as soon as a main motion has been stated to the assembly, its adoption prevents any discussion of the question." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Ed.), p. 66.



Your parliamentary authority is The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis"). A main motion has been moved and seconded. Discussion has continued for several minutes. A member obtains recognition and says, "This motion is not worth the time we have spent discussing it, and I move to close debate."  Is the motion to close debate in order?

No. "Similarly, it is out of order for a member to debate the issue and end the remarks with a motion to close debate." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Ed.), p. 66.



Our board meets three (3) times per year. Our parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Is it possible to postpone a matter that is currently pending to our next board meeting?

It depends--because the motion to postpone is not restricted based on how many times your assembly meets during the year, but by how long an interval will pass between this meeting and the next. "If two business sessions are separated by more than a quarterly time interval—or if the term of a specified portion of the membership expires before the start of the later session (as may happen in an elected legislative session or in a board)—then business can go over from the earlier session to the later one only by means of referral to a committee." RONR (12th ed.) 9:8. As a result, unless your meetings are unevenly spaced during the year, it would NOT be appropriate to postpone, in that such a period would be longer than a quarterly time interval.


You are a member of the Santa Claus Society and are attending one of your quarterly meetings. An important motion is being discussed. Because it is Christmas Eve, the meeting has to adjourn right NOW. What happens to the motion under discussion, if your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

The motion will come up at the next meeting under the heading of "Unfinished Business." "The term unfinished business, in cases where the regular business meetings of an organization are not separated by more than a quarterly time interval (9:7), refers to questions that have come over from the previous meeting (other than special orders) as a result of that meeting's having adjourned without completing its order of business (21:7(b)) and without scheduling an adjourned meeting (9, 22) to complete it." RONR (12th ed.) 41:21.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the effect of adopting a motion that conflicts with a motion that has been adopted by the society and has neither been rescinded, nor reconsidered and rejected after adoption?

"Such conflicting motions, if adopted, are null and void unless adopted by the vote required to rescind or amend the motion previously adopted." RONR (12th ed.) 39:5.


Under The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Ed.)("Sturgis"), can debate on the motion to refer to committee go into the merits of the underlying motion?

No. "Debate restricted to brief discussion on the selection, membership, or duties of the committee, or instructions to it." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, p. 58.


Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) emphasizes that the use of members' names should be avoided. Does this mean that a speaker should refer to himself in the third person, such as "this member"?

"There is no need, however, to refer to oneself in debate in the third person as by the use of such expressions as 'this member.' A member's debate is expected and intended to be partial, and the first person is quite acceptable."  RONR (12th ed.) 43:23.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what standing rule of a convention cannot be suspended?


"[N]o standing rule which has only a single application can be suspended, since this would be equivalent to rescinding the rule, and the case would have to be treated accordingly." RONR (12th ed.) 59:37.



After some debate on a resolution at a club meeting, a member asks if there is a method by which the discussion and meeting can be continued to another time and place, but before the next monthly meeting. The President responds that Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) has a means of continuing the meeting to another convenient time before the next regular meeting. What is the name for such a meeting?

An adjourned meeting. RONR (12th ed.) 9:17.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), should a motion that is later withdrawn by the maker show in the minutes?

"The body of the minutes should contain a separate paragraph for each subject matter and should show: 6) all main motions (10) or motions to bring a main question again before the assembly (6:25-27; 34-37) that were made or taken up--except, normally, any that were withdrawn . . . ."  (Instances in which a main motion that is withdrawn might require mention in the minutes are shown in 48:4(6)n3.) RONR (12th ed.) 48:4.


Under Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the name given to "written rules of parliamentary procedure formally adopted by an assembly or an organization" which "relate to the orderly transaction of business in meetings and to the duties of officers in that connection"?

Rules of order. RONR (12th ed.) 2:14.


In cases where a board is constituted so that a specified portion of its membership is chosen periodically, what happens to unfinished business when the outgoing portion of the board vacates membership, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). 

“Consequently, when the outgoing portion of the board vacates membership, all matters temporarily but not finally disposed of (see 9:8-11, 38:8), except those that remain in the hands of a committee to which they have been referred, fall to the ground under provision (c) in 21:7." RONR (12th ed.) 49:22.  


In Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is described as a "board within a board"?  

An executive committee. RONR (12th ed.) 49:13.  


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what are the three situations in which the motion Appeal is NOT debatable? 


If the appeal "(a) relates to indecorum or a transgression of the rules of speaking; (b) relates to the priority of business; or (c) is made when an undebatable question is immediately pending or involved in the appeal. RONR (12th ed.) 24:3(5).  


An organization is required to hold regular meetings each month. At the February meeting date, there are not enough members present for the meeting to be held. Has the organization violated its bylaws by not meeting in February, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

"But if a quorum fails to appear at a regular or properly called meeting, the inability to transact business does not detract from the fact that the society's rules requiring the meeting to be held were complied with and the meeting was convened--even though it had to adjourn immediately." RONR (12th ed.) 40:6. 


A motion and amendment are pending at a meeting that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). The presently pending amendment proposes to strike several words from the main motion. What type of amendment can be made to the pending amendment?

"The motion to amend by striking out certain words can be amended only by striking out words from the primary amendment. The effect of such a secondary amendment is that words struck out of the primary amendment will remain in the main motion regardless of whether the primary amendment is adopted or rejected." RONR (12th ed.) 12:49.  




You are at a convention that uses Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as its parliamentary authority. If a roll call vote is taken, should the doors be closed and no one allowed to enter or leave the room?

Not unless the convention rules so provide. After all, the concerns in counting a standing vote (that members may move around and confuse the count) are not present in taking a roll call vote (no one can vote unless called upon, and no one who has voted will be called upon a second time). In fact, this language exists as to counting a rising vote: "In all but small assemblies, the doors should be closed and no one should enter or leave the hall while a count is being taken." RONR (12th ed.) 45:15.  


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how are the usual rules of debate modified during a debatable Appeal?

"When an appeal is debatable, no member is allowed to speak more than once except the presiding officer--who need not leave the chair while so speaking, but should stand." RONR (12th ed.) 24:3(5).  


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) and you make a subject THE special order for a meeting, what is the effect?

"The special order for the meeting will then be taken up as soon as the minutes have been approved, and the remainder of the order of business will not be taken up until this special order has been disposed of." RONR (12th ed.) 41:57.  



If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the minutes be approved without being read at all?

"[I]n organizations where copies of the minutes of each previous meeting as prepared by the secretary are sent to all members in advance, the chair announces that this has been done, and the actual reading of them aloud is omitted unless any member then requests that they be read." RONR (12th ed.) 41:9.  


Can a Request for Information be raised following the adoption of an order for the Previous Question (to close debate)? The parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition).

Yes. "The adoption of an order for the Previous Question does not prevent the making of privileged or incidental motions as applicable, and, strictly speaking, it does not prevent a special order set for a particular hour from interrupting the pending business (see also 16:10). RONR (12th ed.) 16:2.  


Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) describes a situation in which the chair, without objection, simply permits a brief pause, without a declaration of a recess. What is the term describing such action?

To "stand at ease." RONR (12th ed.) 8:2(4). 


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), there are three variations of the motion to Commit whose object is not to turn the main question over to a smaller group, but to permit the assembly's full meeting body to consider it with the greater freedom of debate that is allowed in committees--that is, with no limit on the number of times a member can speak. What are these three forms?

"These forms of the motion are: (a) to 'go into a committee of the whole'; (b) to 'go into quasi committee of the whole' (or, to 'consider as if in committee of the whole'); and (c) to 'consider informally.'" RONR (12th ed.) 13:2. 


You are a delegate to an annual convention that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). You wish to delay consideration of the pending resolution until next year's annual convention. What motion should you use?

"If two business sessions are separated by more than a quarterly time interval . . . then business can go over from the earlier session to the later one only by means of referral to a committee." RONR (12th ed.) 9:8.


Your parliamentary authority is The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis"). What motions can be reconsidered?

Main motions may be reconsidered. Other motions cannot. The Standard Code, p. 236.


A member appeals from a decision of the chair at a regular monthly meeting of an organization. After debate on the appeal, the chair states the question as follows: "The question is: 'Shall the decision of the chair be sustained?'"  The vote is 89 affirmative and 90 negative. If the organization’s parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the chair (who is a member of the assembly) vote on the appeal and, if so, how would that impact the appeal?

“A majority or tie vote sustains the decision of the chair on the principle that the chair's decision stands until reversed by a majority. If the presiding officer is a member of the assembly, he can vote to create a tie and thus sustain his decision.”  RONR (12th ed.) 24:3 (7).


You are a delegate to a national convention that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). According to the adopted program, the time for adjournment of a particular session is at 4:00 pm. A motion is made at 3:15 to adjourn the session. You wish to speak against the motion to Adjourn. Is the motion to Adjourn debatable?

Yes (if the motion to Adjourn is in order at all, given the parliamentary situation). "Under any of conditions (1) through (3) above [(2) is "When a time for adjourning is already established, either because the assembly has adopted a motion or a program setting such a time, or because the order of business, the bylaws, or other governing rules prescribe it."], a motion to adjourn is not privileged and is treated just as any other main motion." RONR (12th ed.) 21:3.


The parliamentary authority for your organization is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A main motion is under discussion. The Previous Question is moved, seconded, and ordered by a two-thirds vote of the members present and voting. A member then obtains the floor and asks that the main motion be divided into two questions. Is the motion to divide in order procedurally?

"Although it is preferable to divide a question when it is first introduced, a motion to divide can be made at any time that the main motion, an amendment which it is proposed to divide, or the motion to Postpone Indefinitely is immediately pending--even after the Previous Question has been ordered." RONR (12th ed.) 27:3(1). 


What is the "Gordian Knot motion" and which authority discusses this parliamentary maneuver?

The "Gordian Knot motion" is a use of the motion to Suspend Rules in order to get a fresh start if the parliamentary situation has become to complicated. The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis") discusses the process at page 86.   


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), the motion to create a blank by striking out is what type of motion?

Incidental motion. RONR (12th ed.) t10 (Table of Rules Relating to Motions).


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what vote is required on the motion to Suspend the Rules when the rule is a convention standing rule?

"Any standing rule of a convention (except one prescribing the parliamentary authority) can be suspended for a particular specified purpose by a majority vote, even if the rule required a two-thirds vote for its adoption. Under such a suspension, however, the applicable rules in the parliamentary authority prescribed by the bylaws (or by a rule of the convention) come into force--as if the standing rule had not been adopted. To suspend a convention standing rule and also the general parliamentary rule normally applying to the same situation requires a two-thirds vote, just as to suspend the general rule when no standing rule is involved."  RONR (12th ed.) 59:37.


Unlike a Division of the Assembly (which is an uncounted rising vote following an inconclusive voice vote or vote by show of hands), how does a member operating under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), request that the vote be counted?

A motion that a standing vote be counted (with tellers) is a form of "Motions Relating to Methods of Voting and the Polls." RONR (12th ed.) 30. Such a motion requires a second, is not debatable, and requires a majority vote.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how many times may each member speak to a debatable Appeal?

Only once (unlike most other debatable motions). However, the presiding officer has the right to speak twice--first and last without leaving the chair.  RONR (12th ed.) 24:3(5).


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what duties are prescribed for the Immediate Past President?

None. Robert's does not use or describe the position of "Immediate Past President." Such a position would exist and have responsibilities only if provided in the organization's governing documents. RONR (12th ed.) 47.


Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) makes reference to a "Corresponding Secretary." What is this office?

Ocassionally in large organizations (and rarely these days) the responsibility for issuing notices of meetings and conducting correspondence for the organization is given to a separately elected officer from the Secretary. In the event there are both such officers, one is the Secretary and the other the Corresponding Secretary. RONR (12th ed.) 47:37.


At a meeting that follows Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), a member moves "to lay the main motion on the table until new business." How should the presiding officer respond?

The motion to Lay on the Table cannot be qualified in any way. "In moving it, a member can mention its intended purpose or name a time at which he plans to move that the question be taken from the table, but he canot move to lay a question 'on the table until after the completion of . . .' or, 'on the table until 2 P.M.'  Rather than always ruling such a motion out of order, however, the chair should properly treat it as a motion 'to postpone the question until . . .'; that is, he should state the motion as admittted in that form unless the motion to Postpone is not in order at the time." RONR (12th ed.) 17:21.


In a convention following Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), a Main Motion, amendment, and motion to Refer are pending. A motion to close debate (Previous Question) is moved on all pending motions and adopted. In the subsequent votes, the motion to Refer is defeated. The amendment is adopted. Prior to the last vote on the Main Motion, a member moves to Table the proposal. Is the motion to Table in order?

Yes, a motion to Table can be made while an order for the Previous Question is in force. "If debate has been closed by ordering the Previous Question or by the expiration of the time to which debate was limited, then up until the moment of taking the last vote under the order, the questions still before the assembly can be laid on the table." RONR (12th ed.) 17:12.


The bylaws require that a certain item, such as elections, be considered at a particular meeting. If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), where would this item fall in the standard order of business?

Special orders. RONR (12th ed.) 41:20.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), who has the authority to exclude nonmembers from part or all of a meeting?

"Nonmembers, on the other hand--or a particular nonmember or group of nonmembers--can be excluded at any time from part or all of a meeting of a society, or from all of its meetings. Such exclusion can be effected by a ruling of the chair in cases of disorder, or by the adoption of a rule on the subject, or by an appropriate motion as the need arises--a motion of the latter nature being a question of privilege." RONR (12th ed.) 61:7.


Under the language of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), if there are nominations for office from a committee, should their also be a call for nominations from the floor? 

"After the nominating committee has presented its report and before voting for the different offices takes place, the chair must call for further nominations from the floor." RONR (12th ed.) 46:18.


Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) states that the chair should NOT ask "Is there any unfinished business?" What should be done instead?

If the minutes show that there is some business to come up under this category, the chair should "state the question on the first item of busines that is due to come up under this heading; and when it has been disposed of, he should proceed through the remaining subjects in their proper order." RONR (12th ed.) 41:24.


If the bylaws provide a parliamentary authority of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), but are silent as to electronic meetings, can an organization have meetings by Skype or video conference?

Likely no. Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) discusses electronic meetings, but requires supporting bylaws language. "Except as authorized in the bylaws, the business of an organization or board can be validly transacted only at a regular or properly called meeting--that is, as defined in 8:2(1), a single official gathering in one room or area--of the assembly of its members at which a quorum is present." RONR (12th ed.) 9:30. Further, "an electronic meeting that is properly authorized in the bylaws is treated as though it were a meeting at which all the members who are participating are actually present." RONR (12th ed.) 9:31.

One caveat is that many organizations these days (unions, nonprofits, HOAs and condo associations) are governed by federal or state laws that may permit or prohibit telephonic or virtual meetings. 


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what notice is required for an adjourned meeting established through the motion to Fix the Time to Which to Adjourn?

None. "Unlike a special meeting, an adjourned meeting does not require notice, although it is desirable to give such notice if feasible." RONR (12th ed.) 22:9.


In The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis"), what is the name of the motion to revisit a matter that is either postponed temporarily or tabled?

"Resume consideration." (TSC, 44)


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)--and ignoring any state statutes that may apply--what is the restriction as to what can be considered at a special meeting.

"The only business that can be transacted at a special meeting is that which has been specified in the call of the meeting.  This rule, however, does not preclude the consideration of privileged motions, or of any subsidiary, incidental, or other motions that may arise in connection with the transaction of such business or the conduct of the meeting." RONR (12th ed.) 9:15.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what rules require a two-thirds vote for suspension through the motion to Suspend the Rules?

"The rules of order of a society, as contained in the manual established by the bylaws as the parliamentary authority, or as included in any special rules of order adopted by the organization." RONR (12th ed.) 25:14.


In an annual member meeting following Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, can the motion to Postpone (to a Certain Time) be used to delay consideration of a matter to next year's annual meeting?

No. "In a case where more than a quarterly time inverval will elapse between meetings (for example, in an annual convention of delegates or in a local society that holds only an annual meeting), a question cannot be postponed beyond the end of the present session." RONR (12th ed.) 14:6.


In an annual member meeting following Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the motion to Commit (or Refer) be used to delay consideration of a matter to next year's annual meeting?

Yes. RONR (12th ed.) 9:8.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), the chair of a large body, such as a membership meeting or convention, is permitted to vote when the vote is by ballot. In what other circumstances can the presiding officer vote in a large body?

The presiding officer may vote if the vote will affect the outcome. The chair can vote “AYE” in breaking a tie vote and cause something that was going to fail to pass. The chair can also vote “NO” in the event a proposal is going to pass by one vote, which creates a tie vote and causes the motion to fail, since it did not receive a majority. RONR (12th ed.) 44:12.


Are vacancies taken into consideration in determining a quorum?

The answer varies. If quorum for a board is established in the bylaws as an absolute number, such as ten members, then vacancies make no difference. If, however, quorum is established as "a majority of the membership of the board," vacancies on the board will reduce the required quorum.  Notes and Comments on Robert's Rules, Fourth Edition, p. 113-14.


Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the assembly require a maker to withdraw his or her motion?

No. "Any member can suggest that the maker of a motion ask permission to withdraw it, which the maker can do or decline to do, as he chooses." RONR (12th ed.) 33:16.


If the maker of a motion requests permission to modify or withdraw, does the chair ask for the permission of the person who seconded the motion (using Robert's Rules)?

No. RONR (12th ed.) 33:11-15.


Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), if an amendment is proposed to a motion that requires a two-thirds vote for its adoption, what vote is required to adopt the amendment?

An amendment requires a majority vote "regardless of the vote required to adopt the question to be amended." RONR (12th ed.) 12:7(7).


If your organization follows Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), is the following motion subject to Divide the Question so that the organization can consider (1) whether to create the committee and (2) the committee's duties?

"That an architectural committee be created to review new construction and any changes to existing homes."

No.  "A motion cannot be divided unless each part presents a proper question for the assembly to act upon if none of the other parts is adopted . . .  Thus, if it is moved to establish a committee and give it instructions, this motion is indivisible because, should the part establishing the committee fail, the part giving the committee instructions would be absurd." RONR (12th ed.) 27:5.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how far into the future can a motion at one meeting be postponed through the motion to Postpone to a Certain Time?

It depends on how frequently the organization meets. If there will not be more than a quarterly time interval before the next meeting, a motion could be postponed until, but not beyond, the next meeting. If more than a quarterly time interval will pass between meetings, a motion cannot be postponed beyond the current meeting. RONR (12th ed.) 14:6.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how far can a motion be temporarily delayed through the use of the motion to Lay on the Table if another matter of urgency arises ?

It depends on how frequently the organization meets. If there will not be more than a quarterly time interval before the next meeting, a tabled motion must be brought back before the end of the next regular meeting or it dies (although it could be reintroduced later as a new question). If more than a quarterly time interval will pass between meetings, a motion not taken from the table dies at the end of the current session. RONR (12th ed.) 17:8.


Although elections are often voted on by ballot, if your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order (12th Edition) how is an election by voice handled?

If there is more than one nominee, the candidates are voted on in the order they were nominated as follows:

CHAIR: As many as are in favor of Bob Smith for Treasurer, say AYE . . . . Those opposed, say NO . . . . The ayes have it and Bob Smith is elected Treasurer.

OR:

CHAIR: The noes have it and Bob Smith is not elected. Those in favor of the Mary Jones for Treasurer, say AYE . . . . Those opposed say NO . . . .

As soon as one nominee receives a majority vote, the election is over and there is no vote on the remaining nominees (unless there are multiple seats to fill).

RONR (12th ed.) 46:38.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can errors in minutes be corrected at any time?

Yes.  "If the existence of an error or material omisison in the minutes becomes reasonably established after their approval--even many years later--the minutes can then be corrected by means of the motion to Amend Something Previously Adopted, which requires a two-thirds vote, or a majority vote with notice, or the vote of a majority of the entire membership, or unanimous consent."  RONR (12th ed.) 48:15.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), must the chair strictly alternative in debate between persons speaking pro and con on a debatable motion?

No. "In cases where the chair knows that persons seeking the floor have opposite opinions on the question (and the member to be recognized is not determined by [the rules above], the chair lets the floor alternate, as far as possible, between those favoring and those opposing the measure."  RONR (12th ed.) 3:33.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the missing term in the following sentence with regards to debate?  "When the member finishes speaking, he _______ the floor by resuming his seat."

"yields"  RONR (12th ed.) 3:31.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) what is the effect of a motion being withdrawn? Can the withdrawn motion be made again at the same meeting?

"After a motion has been withdrawn, the situation is as though it had never been made; therefore, the same motion can be made again at the same meeting." RONR (12th ed.) 33:18.


When using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), in a motion in the form of a resolution, are the resolved clauses amended first or last?

First. "In the consideration of a resolution having a preamble, the preamble is always amended last, since changes in the resolving clauses may require changes in the preamble." RONR (12th ed.) 10:19.


If a matter is properly postponed from one meeting to the following meeting, using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), and the item is not made a Special Order for the meeting, what is it?

A General Order. RONR (12th ed.) 41:22.


If a member disagrees with a ruling of the chair, how long under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) does the member have to Appeal from the Decision of the Chair?

The Appeal must be made immediately, "at the time of the chair's ruling. If any debate or business has intervened, it is too late to appeal." RONR (12th ed.) 24:8.


Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), may a member yield the unused portion of her time to speak to another member?

Without a specific rule, no. "[A] member cannot yield any unexpired portion of his time to another member . . . ." RONR (12th ed.) 43:10.


A meeting does this under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) when "the chair, without objection, simply permits a brief pause, without a declaration of recess." What is the term?

To "stand at ease." RONR (12th ed.) 8:2(4).


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) and a special meeting is called to consider a specific item, is it permissible for any other motions to be considered at the meeting?

"The only business that can be transacted at a special meeting is that which has been specified in the call of the meeting. This rule, however, does not preclude the consideration of privileged motions, or of any subsidiary, incidental, or other motions that may arise in connection with the transaction of such business or the conduct of the meeting. If, at a special meeting, action is taken relating to business not mentioned in the call, tha action, to become valid, must be ratified by the organization at a regular meeting (or at another special meeting properly called for that purpose)." RONR (12th ed.) 9:15.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the one motion that must have been made by someone who voted on the prevailing side of the vote (unless made in committee)?

The motion to Reconsider. RONR (12th ed.) 37:8.


Your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Is it permissible to make a motion to take away the right of the chairman/president to preside at all or part of a given session?

Yes, but for that session only, through a motion to Suspend the Rules and a two-thirds vote. RONR (12th ed.) 62:12.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the motion to Divide a Question be applied to an amendment?

Yes. "If applied to an amendment, it also takes precedence over that amendment." RONR (12th ed.) 27:3(1).


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the motion to Divide a Question be applied to a main motion while an amendment is pending?

No. "[A] motion to divide the main question cannot be made while an amendment to the main qeustion is pending." RONR (12th ed.) 27:3(1).


Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) uses Previous Question to move to close debate. What is the equivalent motion in The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, 4th Edition ("Sturgis")?

The Motion to Close Debate and Vote Immediately. TSC, p. 65.


Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), does a teller report the result of a ballot vote?

No. "The reporting teller never declares the result of a ballot vote." RONR (12th ed.) 45:39.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how is the result of a ballot election declared? 

"The result is always declared by the chair, who also reades the tellers' report before he does so. In an election, the chair separately declares the election of each officer." RONR (12th ed.) 45:39.


For an organization following Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how should a motion that conflicts with the charter, constitution or bylaws be handled?

It should be ruled out of order (although a motion to amend such documents may be in order). RONR (12th ed.) 10:26(1).


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), why does a motion made by direction of a board or committee not need a second from the floor (provided the subordinate group is composed of more than one person)? 

Because "the motion's introduction has been directed by a majority vote within the board or committee and is therefore desired by at least two assembly members or elected or appointed persons to whose opinion the assembly is presumed to give weight regarding the board's or committee's concerns." RONR (12th ed.) 4:11.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), who has the right to view minutes of an executive session?

Any member (i.e., a member of the association if a membership meeting executive session; a board member if a board meeting executive session. In short, someone who had the right to be AT the executive session meeting can view minutes of the executive session. See RONR (12th ed.) 47:36.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the vote requirement to close the polls?

Motions related to methods of voting and the polls require a majority vote, "except a motion to close the polls, which requires a two-thirds vote." RONR (12th ed.) 30:3(7).


Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), who presides in the event an assembly goes into "Committee of the Whole"?

"If the motion of referral to the commitee of the whole is adopted, the presiding officer immediately calls another member to the chair--frequently, but not necessarily, the vice-president--and takes his place as a member of the committee." RONR (12th ed.) 52:7.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), which type of committee "in effect only suspends the rule limiting the number of times a member can speak in debate on the main question and any amendments to it"?

Informal Consideration. RONR (12th ed.) 52:24.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a requirement in the bylaws that a vote be taken by ballot be suspended?

No. "When the bylaws require a vote to be taken by ballot, this requirement cannot be suspended--even by a unanimous vote--so as to take the vote by a nonsecret method." RONR (12th ed.) 45:20.


Using only Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), may a member "yield" the remainder of their speaking time to another member?

No. "Rights in regard to debate are not transferable. Unless the organization has a special rule on the subject, a member cannot yield any unexpired portion of his time to another member, or reserve any portion of his time for a later time--that is, if a member yields the floor before speaking his full ten minutes, he is presumed to have waived his right to the remaining time." RONR (12th ed.) 43:10.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how does the chair "protect the assembly from obviously dilatory motions"?

By "refusing to recognize them." RONR (12th ed.) 47:7(5).


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), if a practice or custom of parliamentary procedure is or becomes in conflict with a written rule or the parliamentary authority, what happens to the custom?  

If a Point of Order citing the conflict is raised, "the custom falls to the ground, and the conflicting provision in the parliamentary authority or written rule must thereafter be complied with." RONR (12th ed.) 2:25.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a meeting be called to order in the absence of a quorum? 

Technically, yes. "If a quorum cannot be obtained, the chair calls the meeting to order, announces the absence of a quorum, and entertains a motion to adjourn or one of the other motions allowed, as described above." RONR (12th ed.) 40:11.


If Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), is your parliamentary authority, can the following motion be divided?

"RESOLVED, That the association purchase a moped for member use and keep it filled up with gas for 3 years."

No. "Another type of motion that cannot divided is one whose parts are not easily separated." RONR (12th ed.) 27:5. If no moped is purchased, it cannot be kept filled up with gas! The motion could be amended, however, to change or even delete one part or the other.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the motion To Fix the Time to Which to Adjourn be used to schedule an adjourned meeting AFTER the next regular meeting? 

No. "In an organized society, the adjourned meeting scheduled by adoption of this motion (privileged or main) must be set for a time before that of the next regular meeeting." RONR (12th ed.) 22:7.


Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) provides that a motion is ________ "if it seeks to obstruct or thwart the will of the assembly as clearly indicated by the existing parliamentary situation." 

Dilatory. RONR (12th ed.) 39:1.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a nomination to office be debated?

Yes, within limitations. "If candidates are members of the organization, speakers must exercise caution to avoid making any personal criticisms of them in debate. Rather than attacking a nominee, a speaker may advocate the election of a rival candidate. By a two-thirds vote, the assembly may adopt a motion limiting debate to any extent desired." RONR (12th ed.) 46:28.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), by what method does a convention delegate demand a separate vote on an individual rule that is part of the Standing Rules of the Convention?

By demanding a separate vote on the individual rule, at which point "the remainder of the rules are acted on first, and then those seperated out are acted on individually." RONR (12th ed.) 59:32.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), when is an Appeal from the decision of the Chair NOT debatable?

When the Appeal "(a) relates to indecorum or a transgression of the rules of speaking; (b) relates to the priority of business; or (c) is made when an undebatable question is immediately pending or involved in the appeal." RONR (12th ed.) 24:3.


If a member calls for the "Orders of the Day" under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what vote is required to NOT conform to the agenda, program, or order of business?

A two thirds vote of those voting would be required to not conform to the agenda, program, or order of business. RONR (12th ed.) 18:1.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), does the motion to "call for the orders of the day" require a second?

No. RONR (12th ed.) 18:4.


Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a motion to Object to Consideration be made during debate?

Not once debate begins. "The objection can be raised only before there has been any debate or any subsidiary motion except Lay on the Table has been stated by the chair; thereafter, consideration of the main question has begun and it is too late to object. RONR (12th ed.) 26:2.