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Difficulty 3

If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), do the names of makers and seconders of motions go into the minutes?

Yes and no. "The name of the maker of a main motion should be entered in the minutes, but the name of the seconder should not be entered unless ordered by the assembly." RONR (12th ed.) 48:5.


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, amendments to motions must always be “closely related to or having bearing on the subject of the motion to be amended.” What is the term used for this requirement? 

Amendments must be "germane." RONR (12th ed.) 12:6; 12:16-21.


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), when does an adopted bylaws amendment go into effect?

"[I]mmediately upon its adoption unless the motion to adopt specifies another time for its becoming effective, or the assembly has set such a time by a previously adopted motion." RONR (12 ed.) 57:15.


The Sturgis Standard Code (4th Edition)("Sturgis") omits "some of the unfamiliar terms and archaic motions encountered" in Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised. What is the suggested method in Sturgis for dealing with the following "out of date" motions: Postpone Indefinitely, Previous Question, Quasi-Committee of the Whole?

The Standard Code, p. 231-237.

Postpone Indefinitely - Handle as the motion to table
Previous Question - "I move to close debate and vote immediately."
Quasi-Committee of the Whole - Treat as motion to consider informally.


The Chairman of a board is having difficulty arranging a time that all members can discuss a matter. As a result, the chair obtains the personal approval of the proposed action by telephone from every member of the board.

According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), is the action proper? If not, what should be done to make the proposal an official act of the board?

"The personal approval of a proposed action obtained separately by telephone, by individual interview, or in writing, even from every member of the board, is not the approval of the board." RONR (12 ed.) 49:16. If action is taken on such a basis, it must be ratifiedat a regular or properly called board meeting in order to become an official act of the board. RONR (12 ed.) 10:54.


The President-Elect of an organization has upset numerous members with recent statements about what he will do as President. According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the assembly now elect someone other than the President-Elect to the office of President?

"Once a person has been elected president-elect, the assembly cannot alter its decision regarding the succession of that person to the presidency, unless he vacates office during his term as president-elect or unless ground arises for deposing him from that office (see 62:16)." RONR (12 ed.) 47:21.


A close voice vote has been taken, and a member then calls for a division. Another member is then recognized by the presiding officer and moves to adjourn. Is the motion in order according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No. The motion to adjourn "[t]akes precedence over all motions except the privileged motion to Fix the Time to Which to Adjourn; but it is not in order while the assembly is engaged in voting or verifying a vote, or before the result of a vote has been announced by the chair, except that, in case of a vote taken by ballot, a motion to Adjourn is in order after the ballots have been collected by the tellers and before the result has been announced." RONR (12 ed.) 21:6(1).


If there is no specific rule on the subject, can the chairman of a meeting exclude nonmembers from the meeting if the nonmembers are causing no disruption, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No. "Nonmembers . . . can be excluded at any time from part or all of a meeting of a society, or from all of its meetings. Such exclusion can be effected by a ruling of the chair in cases of disorder, or by the adoption of a rule on the subject, or by an appropriate motion as the need arises--a motion of the latter nature being a question of privilege." RONR (12th ed.) 61:7. A motion to exclude all nonmembers (except absolutely necessary staff, if any) is often referred to as a motion to "go into executive session." RONR (12 ed.) 9:24.


A nominating committee wishes to nominate one of its own members for President of the organization. Is this appropriate according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

Yes. "Members of the nominating committee are not barred from becoming nominees for office themselves. To make such a requirement would mean, first, that service on the nominating committee carried a penalty by depriving its members of one of their privileges; and second, that appointment or election to the nominating committee could be used to prevent a member from becoming a nominee." RONR (12 ed.) 46:12.


The parliamentary authority of your organization is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). According to the Bylaws of the organization, the Treasurer is an ex-officio member of the Finance Committee. Can the Treasurer speak and/or vote at Finance Committee meetings?

Yes. The term ex-officio simply describes how membership on the body came about (by virtue of an office or title held in the society or outside group), and does not define rights of membership. Unless the Bylaws restrict participation, an ex-officio member has all rights of membership, including the right to speak and to vote. RONR (12 ed.) 49:8.


You are a member of an organization with a parliamentary authority of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Your elected board of directors recently held an important meeting and you wish to see a copy of minutes. Are you entitled as a member of the larger organization to the board minutes upon request?

No, unless the bylaws of your organization or state law permit or require such right of access. "Only members of the board have the right to examine the minute book kept by the secretary (cf. 47:36), unless the board orders otherwise (see next paragraph)." RONR (12 ed.) 49:17.


The bylaws of your organization (which uses Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as a parliamentary authority) provides that the officers shall "be elected by ballot." The same person has held the office of Treasurer for 12 years and is unopposed for re-election. The organization is 100% behind her election. Can the ballot be taken by a voice vote if there is unanimous consent? Can a motion be made to suspend the bylaws to allow such an election?

No, a ballot vote must be taken. "If the bylaws require the election of officers to be by ballot and there is only one nomineee for an office, the ballot must nevertheless be taken for that office unless the bylaws provide for an exception in such a case." RONR (12th ed.) 46:35. "The assembly cannot make valid a viva-voce election if the bylaws require the election to be by ballot.” (12th ed.) 46:41. 


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), list the basic bylaws of an organization.

Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) § 5616-57:

I. Name
II. Object
III. Members
IV. Officers
V. Meetings
VI. Executive Board (or Board of Directors)
VII. Committees
VIII. Parliamentary Authority
IX. Amendment of Bylaws


The motion on the floor at a meeting following Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) is that "delegates to the state convention be instructed to vote for the dues increase." Is a motion to amend by inserting the word "not" between the words "convention" and "be" in order? Is a motion to amend by inserting the word "not" between the words "instructed" and "to" in order?

Not in order as to "not be instructed." In order as to "instructed not to vote."

"Thus, in the motion that 'our delegates be instructed to vote in favor of the increase in Federation dues,' an amendment to insert 'not' before 'be' is out of order because an affirmative vote on not giving a certain instruction is identical with a negative vote on giving the same instruction. But it would be in order to move to insert 'not' before 'to' ('instructed not to vote in favor'), since this would change the main motion into one to give different instructions." RONR (12th ed.) 12:22(2).


What is a "proviso" according to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

A bylaws amendment takes effect immediately unless another time is specified for its becoming effective. "While the amendment is pending, a motion can be made to amend the enacting words of the motion to amend by adding a clause such as this: '. . . with the proviso that [or, '. . . provided, however, that'] this amendment shall not go into effect until after the close of this annual meeting.'" RONR (12th ed.) 57.


Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) generally permits an individual to speak to any debatable motion two times on the same day. Name a motion which if debatable permits members to only speak once, but the presiding officer may speak to the motion twice.

(1) Appeal or (2) Point of Order submitted to a vote. RONR (12th ed.) 23:19, 24:3(5).


A particular organization has as its authority Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) and must be concerned about the following laws/rules. Arrange them in order from most important to least important.

Bylaws
Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)
Standing Rules
Federal or State Law
Special Rules of Order
Constitution
Corporate Charter/Articles of Incorporation

RONR (12th ed.) 2:

Federal or State Law
Corporate Charter/Articles of Incorporation
Constitution
Bylaws
Special Rules of Order
Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)
Standing Rules


You are at a monthly meeting of your organization and a member moves to "dispense with the reading of the minutes." If adopted, what is the effect of this motion according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

Contrary to popular usage, the motion to "dispense with the reading of the minutes" does not mean to never have the reading of the minutes, but simply means that the minutes will not be read and approved at the regular time. The minutes should still be approved at the meeting. If not, “they are read and approved at the following meeting, before the later minutes are taken up." RONR (12th ed.) 48:11.


You are the parliamentarian for a small monthly meeting following Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Votes are traditionally taken by a show of hands. After a relatively close vote, a member calls for a Division of the assembly. The member makes clear that he only expects a rising vote, not a counted vote. The chair feels that a Division is not necessary because the previous vote was by hands and was the same as a Division. Is the member entitled to a rising vote?

Yes, because a hand vote is not the same as a division. "Whenever a member doubts the result of a voice (viva voce) vote or a vote by show of hands . . . he can call for a Division of the Assembly, thereby requiring the vote to be taken again by rising." RONR (12th ed.) 29:1.


You are at the monthly meeting of an organization following Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A main motion, an amendment, and motion to refer are pending. A motion is made and adopted to close debate on all pending motions. The motion to Refer is voted on and defeated. The motion to Amend is voted on and adopted. The chair begins to state, "The question is on the adoption of the main motion as amended . . .," when she notices a member seeking recognition. The member is recognized and moves to Table the main motion on the grounds that something else of immediate urgency has arisen. Is the motion to Table in order given that the Previous Question has already been adopted and several votes taken?

Yes, the motion to Table is in order. "If debate has been closed by ordering the Previous Question or by the expiration of the time to which debate was limited, then up until the moment of taking the last vote under the order, the questions still before the assembly can be laid on the table." RONR (12th ed.) 17:12.


A presiding officer is convinced that a member is using parliamentary motions for obstructive purposes. What procedural course of action can the presiding officer take to resolve the situation, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

"Whenever the chair becomes convinced that one or more members are repeatedly using parliamentary forms for dilatory purposes, he should either not recognize these members or he should rule that such motions are not in order—but he should never adopt such a course merely to speed up business, and he should never permit his personal feelings to affect his judgment in such cases. If the chair only suspects that a motion is not made in good faith, he should give the maker of the motion the benefit of the doubt.  The chair should always be courteous and fair, but at the same time he should be firm in protecting the assembly from imposition." RONR (12th ed.) 39:4.


A motion is made and seconded to suspend a convention standing rule to permit the introduction of a main motion that would otherwise not be in order. The delegate who plans to introduce the main motion asks for permission to speak first on the motion to suspend the rules. The delegate who moved to suspend the rules also asks to speak. Who should the presiding officer recognize first to speak to the motion to suspend the rules, if your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

Neither, because this is a trick question! The motion to suspend the rules is not debatable or amendable. RONR (12th ed.) 25:2(5).


A motion is made and seconded that, "The club sponsor a pool party this summer at a cost not to exceed $500." Following some discussion, a motion is made to amend the motion by changing "pool party" to "picnic." The motion to amend receives a second and is now under discussion. A member is recognized and moves to make an "amendment to the amendment" by striking the word "summer" and inserting in its place "fall" (so that the event will be in the fall, rather than the summer). Is this motion to amend in order if your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No.  While it is proper to propose an "amendment to an amendment" (also referred to as a "secondary amendment"), the amendment must propose a change to the primary amendment. In the example above, the proposed secondary amendment has nothing to do with the primary amendment of changing "pool party" to "picnic," but pertains to another part of the main motion. As a result, such an amendment is out of order at the present time. Once consideration of the primary amendment is completed, such a motion to amend "summer" to "fall" would be in order. RONR (12th ed.) § 12:11-13.


What terms are used in The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Ed.)("Sturgis") in place of the motions to "Lay on the Table" and the "Previous Question" (the terms used in Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition))?

Lay on the Table = Motion to Postpone Temporarily
Previous Question = Motion to Close Debate and Vote Immediately
Sturgis Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, p. 65 and 68


Which of the following motions is in order even while the privileged motion to adjourn is pending, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

Recess
Reconsider
Postpone to a Certain Time

Due to the strict time limitations on its introduction, the motion to Reconsider can be made (but not taken up) while the privileged motion to Adjourn is pending or even after the assembly has voted to adjourn. RONR (12th ed.) 21:10.


You are a member of a board with fewer than a dozen members. According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), name four ways in which the rules governing such a meeting are different than the rules that hold in other assemblies.

Any of the following from Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) § 49:21:

Members may raise a hand instead of standing when seeking to obtain the floor, and may remain seated while making motions or speaking.
Motions need not be seconded.
There is no limit to the number of times a member can speak to a debatable question. Appeals, however, are debatable under the regular rules--that is, each member (except the chair) can speak only once in debate on them, while the chair may speak twice.
Informal discussion of a subject is permitted while no motion is pending.
When a proposal is perfectly clear to all present, a vote can be taken without a motion's having been introducted. Unless agreed to by unanimous consent, however, all proposed actions must be approved by a vote under the same rules as in larger meetings, except that a vote can be taken initially by a show of hands, which is often a better method in small meetings.
The chairman need not rise while putting questions to a vote.
If the chairman is a member, he may, without leaving the chair, speak in informal discussoin and in debate, and vote on all questions.


An organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) anticipates a particularly difficult meeting and wants to bring in an outside person to chair the meeting. Is such a procedure allowed, and if so, what must be done to permit a nonmember to preside?

Yes, it is appropriate for an invited nonmember who is skilled in presiding to chair, including a "professinoal presiding officer." If the president and the vice-president(s) do not object, the assembly, by majority vote, can adopt such an arrangement for all or part of a session. Alternatively, the rules may be suspended to authorize it, even over the objection of the president or a vice-president." RONR (12th ed.) 47:13.


A member of an organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) wants to prepare a resolution in favor of naming a new school for John Doe. John Doe has two major arguments in favor of such recognition: (1) he was the first superintendent of the school system many years earlier; and (2) he later went on to serve his state with distinction as Governor. Using these facts, prepare a resolution with two "Whereas" clauses in proper form.

While "Whereas" clauses are not required, they are sometimes included in a resolution when it is desirable to include a brief statement of background (or when it is the custom of the organization). In this brainteaser, any language will do--it is the form that is important.

Whereas, The first superintendent of the county school system was John Doe; and
Whereas, John Doe went on to serve our state with distinction as Governor;
Resolved, That the new school to be opened in August of 2001 shall be named the John Doe Elementary School.

RONR (12th ed.) 10:13-22, which also notes appropriate variations on this language.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), under what circumstances is the motion to Appeal not debatable?

When the motion "(a) relates to indecorum or a transgression of the rules of speaking; (b) relates to the priority of business; or (c) is made when an undebatable question is immediately pending or involved in the appeal." RONR (12th ed.) 24:3(5).


Your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). At the end of business at a regular meeting of an ordinary society, the chair asked, "Is there any further business?" When there was no response, the chair adjourned the meeting. Should the chair have asked for or waited for a motion to adjourn?

No. "When it appears that there is no further business in a meeting of an ordinary local society that normally goes through a complete order of business (41) at each regular meeting (9), the chair, instead of waiting or calling for a motion to adjourn, can ask, "Is there any further business?" If there is no response, the chair can then say, "Since there is no further business, the meeting is adjourned." RONR (12th ed.) 21:15.


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what type of matter should always be handled only in executive session with only members of the organization present?

"In any society, certain matters relating to discipline (61, 63), such as trials, must be handled only in executive session." RONR (12th ed.) 9.


Your organization's bylaws provide that the executive director is an "ex-officio member of the board of directors," but give no other guidance. Is the executive director allowed to vote and to make motions during meetings of the board of directors, if the authority of the organization is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

Unless expressly stated differently in the bylaws, an ex-officio member has all rights of membership--including the right to participate in debate and to vote. "In the executive board of a society, if the ex-officio member of the board is under the authority of the society (that is, if he is a member, an employee, or an elected or appointed officer of the society), there is no distinction between him and the other board members." RONR (12th ed.) 49.


Your organization follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A member has repeatedly questioned the motives of other members. The chair has called the member to order, but the member refuses to be quiet. Does the chair have the authority to order the offending member removed from the hall?

No. "Although the chair has no authority to impose a penalty or to order the offending member removed from the hall, the assembly has that power." RONR (12th ed.) 61:13.


A convention is considering the report of the resolutions committee (which has been presented as one motion on a series of different subjects). The parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). What vote is required if a member wishes for one of the resolutions to receive separate consideration and a vote?

None. "[O]ne or more of the several resolutions must receive separate consideration and vote at the request of a single member, and the motion for Division of a Question is not used." RONR (12th ed.) 27:10.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what are the notice and vote requirements to adopt a standing rule which is not related to a convention?

"A standing rule can be adopted by a majority vote without previous notice, provided that it does not conflict with or amend any existing rule or act of the society." RONR (12th ed.) 2:23. (NOTE: The rules governing standing rules in conventions differ from ordinary standing rules.)



You are a member of a ten person board with a parliamentary authority of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Three members have left the board and replacements have not yet been named. If all rules of the organization are silent as to quorum, how many individuals must be present at a meeting to transact business?

Four. "In any other deliberative assembly with enrolled membership whose bylaws do not specify a quorum, the quorum is a majority of all the members." RONR (12th ed.) 40:2(4). At present, the total membership of the board is seven, and four is a majority of seven.



The board of an association is required by its bylaws to meet the first Thursday of each month. At this month's meeting, a quorum is not present prior to the start of the meeting. The officers attempt to obtain a quorum, but are not successful. As a result, no business is transacted. Must another meeting on another day in the same month be held to comply with the bylaws requirement that a monthly meeting be held, if the organization's parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No. "But if a quorum fails to appear at a regular or properly called meeting, the inability to transact business does not detract from the fact that the society's rules requiring the meeting to be held were complied with and the meeting was convened--even though it had to adjourn immediately." RONR (12th ed.) 40:6.  


Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law suggests the mnemonic S-H-I-P for remembering the subjects upon which a question of privilege may be raised. What does each letter represent?

"Question of privilege relates in a broad interpretation to the following subjects: the members' Safety, Health, or Integrity, or protection of their Property (catchword: S-H-I-P). When a member rises to a question of privilege or personal privilege and is asked to state it, he is expected to reveal or point out something concerning these four subjects; namely, the subjects S-H-I-P." Demeter, p. 106.  



According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), an affirmative vote on a motion to Commit (or Refer) cannot be reconsidered if the committee has begun consideration of the question. Why?

Because the motion to Discharge a Committee (see section 36) must be used. RONR (12th ed.) 13:7(8).


You are a member of a five person board of directors that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) to the letter. (The board does not have any adopted procedural rules, other than Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition).) A resolution is being discussed concerning holding the annual general membership meeting in Chicago, IL. A motion is made to postpone the discussion and vote on the resolution until the next board meeting. Does the motion to postpone to a certain time need a second to be considered?

No. "In a board meeting where there are not more than about a dozen members present, . . .  2) [m]otions need not be seconded." RONR (12th ed.) 49:21.



According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), the seconder of a motion can speak against (if the motion is debatable) or vote against the motion he seconded. What can the MAKER of the motion not do?

"In debate, the maker of a motion, while he can vote against it, is not allowed to speak against his own motion. He need not speak at all, but if he does he is obliged to take a favorable position. If he changes his mind while the motion he made is pending, he can, in effect, advise the assembly of this by asking permission to withdraw the motion (pp. 295-97)." RONR (12th ed.) 43:25.




Your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) and no state statutes govern your organization. Under what circumstances can a member of the society examine the minutes of the society? Can the member also examine the minutes of the society's board of directors, if she is not a member of the board?

Yes as to society minutes upon demand, but not the board minutes, without more. "Any member has a right to examine these reports and the record book(s) . . . including the minutes of an executive session, at a reasonable time and place, but this privilege must not be abused to the annoyance of the secretary. . . .  The same principle applies to the minutes of boards and committees, these being accessible to members of the boards or committees (see also 49:17-19)." RONR (12th ed.) 47:36.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the proper form for making a Request for Information when information is desired of another member who is speaking?

"Madam President, will the member yield for a question?"
or
"Mr. President, I would like to ask the gentlemen [or 'the member'] a question."  

"If the speaker consents to the interruption, the time consumed will be taken out of his allowed time." RONR (12th ed.) 33:8-9.


What are the rights of the presiding officer to vote in the event of a ballot vote, according to The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis")?  

"Ballot Voting. When vote is by ballot, the presiding officer (if a member of the organization) votes the same as anyone else. But in such cases if a tie results, the chair cannot break the tie by voting a second time unless the bylaws provide that this may be done in case of a deadlock tie vote." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, page 137.



According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), the official organization of a convention is brought about by the separate consideration and adoption of the reports of what three committees in what order?

"[T[he Credentials Committee, the Committee on Standing Rules, and the Program Committee, in that order." RONR (12th ed.) 59:11. 


A school board meets monthly with a parliamentary authority of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Using the motion to Postpone to a Certain Time, can a matter be postponed until "the meeting after next"?

No. "In cases where no more than a quarterly time interval will elapse between sessions, a question can be postponed until, but not beyond, the next regular business session. For example, in a society that holds regular business meetings on the same day of each week, a question cannot, at one meeting, be postponed for longer than a week." RONR (12th ed.) 14:6.


Your organization follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Should the minutes reflect how each member voted if a count has been ordered? 

No. The names of members and how they voted should only be noted on a roll call vote.
"a) When a count has been ordered, the number of votes on each side is entered, unless the vote was on a motion that would not otherwise be entered in the minutes.
b) When the voting is by ballot, the full tellers' report (45:37-40) is entered.
c) When the voting is by roll call, the names of those voting on each side and those answering 'present,' as well as the total number in each category are entered. If members who are present fail to respond on a roll-call vote, enough of their names should be recorded as present to reflect that a quorum was present at the time of the vote. If the chair voted, no special mention of this fact is made in the minutes." RONR (12th ed.) 48:5(2).


Using Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as your parliamentary authority, name at least four different types of nominations.

(1) Nominations by the Chair;
(2) Nominations from the Floor;
(3) Nominations by a Committee;
(4) Nominations by Ballot;
(5) Nominations by Mail; and
(6) Nominations by Petition. RONR (12th ed.) 46:5-26.


You are attending a convention governed by Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) and wish to change the program after its adoption. What vote is required? 

"To change the program after its adoption requires a two-thirds vote or the vote of a majority of all the delegates or other 'voting members' of the convention who have been registered--or unanimous consent, which can usually be obtained with no difficulty in cases where a departure from the program is justified."  RONR (12th ed.) 59:59.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a motion to Amend be made while a motion to Postpone Indefinitely is pending?  

Yes. The motion to Postpone Indefinitely is not amendable, but an amendment can be proposed to the main motion while a motion to Postpone Indefinitely is pending. RONR makes the following statement pertaining to the motion to Amend: "When applied to a main motion: It takes precedence over the main motion and over the subsidiary motion to Postpone Indefinitely." RONR (12th ed.) 12:7(1)(a).



According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), does a member have the right to explain her vote during voting?  

No. "RULE AGAINST EXPLANATION BY MEMBERS DURING VOTING. A member has no right to 'explain his vote' during voting, which would be the same as debate at such a time." RONR (12th ed.) 45:7.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), the motions to Rescind and to Amend Something Previously Adopted require what vote to adopt?

"In an assembly, except when applied to a constitution, bylaws, or special rules of order, require (a) a two-thirds voted, (b) a majority vote when notice of intent to make the motion, stating the complete substance of the proposed change, has been given at the previous meeting within a quarterly time interval or in the call of the present meeting, or (c) a vote of a majority of the entire membership—any one of which will suffice. The same vote is required for the assembly to rescind or amend an action taken by subordinate bodies, such as some executive boards, empowered to act on behalf of the assembly. In a committee, these motions require a two-thirds vote unless all committee members who voted for the motion to be rescinded or amended are present or have received reasonable notice, in which case they require a majority vote." RONR (12th ed.) 35:2(7).




According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), there are two types of questions of privilege. What are they, and what is their order of importance?

"Questions of privilege are of two types: (1) those relating to the privileges of the assembly as a whole; and (2) questions of personal privilege. If the two come into competition, the former take precedence over the latter." RONR (12th ed.) 19:7.



What is the term applied to a committee that is appointed with the authority to take all the steps necessary to carry out its instructions, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)

"A committee appointed 'with power.'" RONR (12th ed.) 50:5.



Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) is your parliamentary authority. A roll-call vote has been ordered, and the roll is being called in alphabetical order. If you do not wish to vote in the affirmative or negative, how should you answer?    

"If he does not wish to vote, he answers present (or abstain). If he is not ready to vote, but wishes to be called on again after the roll has been completely called, he answers pass." RONR (12th ed.) 45:48.


You are a member of a committee and your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). The chairman of the committee refuses to call a meeting. Is there any action you can take under RONR to force a meeting?    



"When a committee has been appointed, its chairman (or first-named member temporarily acting—see 13:18) should call it together. If some members of the committee believe that the chairman has failed to call this initial meeting or any subsequent meeting when necessary, a meeting of the committee may be called by any two of its members, unless (such as for very large committees) the assembly's rules or instructions prescribe, or empower the committee itself to require, a larger number." RONR (12th ed.) 50:21.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) (and except in a small board or a committee), when should the presiding officer stand?   

"Except in a small board or a committee, the presiding officer should stand while calling a meeting to order or declaring it adjourned, and while putting a question to vote. He should also stand--without leaving the chair--while explaining his reasons for a ruling on a point of order (if the explanation entails more than a few words) or when speaking during debate on an appeal or a point of order that he has submitted to the judgment of the assembly." RONR (12th ed.) 47:9.


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), should minutes be signed with the words "Respectfully Submitted" as a closing?

"Minutes should be signed by the secretary and can also be signed, if the assembly wishes, by the president. The words Respectfully submitted--although occasionally used--represent an older practice that is not essential in signing the minutes." RONR (12th ed.) 48:7.




Using Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as your parliamentary authority, by what motion can a member "require the assembly to conform to its agenda, program, or order of business, or to take up a general or special order that is due to come up at the time, unless two thirds of those voting wish to do otherwise"?

Call for the Orders of the Day. RONR (12th ed.) 18.


Using Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as your parliamentary authority, which is the only subsidiary motion in which debate on the motion can go fully into the merits of the main question?

Postpone Indefinitely. RONR (12th ed.) 11:2(5).


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the vote on a motion to Rescind or to Amend Something Previously Adopted be reconsidered?

"A negative vote on these motions can be reconsidered, but not an affirmative vote." RONR (12th ed.) 35:2(8).


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), by what method can a member of an organization speak during a meeting and criticize a prior act that is not pending at that time?

"In debate, a member cannot reflect adversely on any prior act of the society that is not then pending, unless a motion to reconsider, rescind, or amend it is pending, or unless he intends to conclude his remarks by making or giving notice of one of these motions." RONR (12th ed.) 43:24.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what motion and vote are required in order to make the assembly conform to an adopted agenda, program, or order of business? 

The motion Call for the Orders of the Day is a "privileged motion by which a member can require the assembly to conform to its agenda, program, or order of business, or to take up a general or special order that is due to come up at the time, unless two thirds of those voting wish to do otherwise." RONR (12th ed.) 18.


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), at what point does an election to an office become final? 

"An election to an office becomes final immediately if the candidate is present and does not decline, or if he is absent but has consented to his candidacy. If he is absent and has not consented to his candidacy, the election becomes final when he is notified of his election, provided that he does not immediately decline." RONR (12th ed.) 46:46.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is necessary following a ballot election to hear the actual number of votes cast for each candidate (instead of just who won)? 

Nothing. The actual number of votes cast for each candidate is a part of the tellers' report (see RONR (12th ed.) 45). "The tellers' report is entered in full in the minutes, becoming a part of the official records of the organization.  Under no circumstances may this be omitted in an election or in a vote on a critical motion out of a mistaken deference to the feelings of unsuccessful candidates or members of the losing side." RONR (12th ed.) 45:40.


Your organization, which follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), has a Bylaws provision that prohibits officers from serving consecutive terms in the same office. Jane was recently appointed by the Board to fill out the remaining nine months of the Vice President's 2-year term. Can Jane be elected to the office of Vice President in the upcoming election to serve for two more years? 

Yes, Jane can be elected as she has not served a "full term" in office. "In filling vacancies for unexpired terms, an officer who has served more than half a term in an office is considered to have served a full term." RONR (12th ed.) 47:4.




Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) states that with respect to board or committee reports, the terms "adopt," "accept," and "agree to" are equivalent. However, which term is the recommended choice in RONR?

"It is usually best to use the word adopt, however, since it is the least likely to be misunderstood." RONR (12th ed.) 51:14.


A voice vote is taken at a meeting following Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), followed by a standing uncounted vote (division). A member doubts the result as announced by the Chairman. Can the member demand a counted vote?

No, but the member can move that the standing vote be counted. Such a motion is not debatable and requires a majority vote. RONR (12th ed.) 30:1.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), is it appropriate to seek recognition from the presiding officer to seek the floor for discussion, and then make a motion following your remarks?

Yes. "When assigned the floor, a member may use it for any proper purpose, or a combination of purposes; for example, although a member may have begun by debating a pending motion, he may conclude by moving any secondary motion, including the Previous Question (16), that is in order at the time. RONR (12th ed.) 42:5.


Under The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Edition)("Sturgis"), can a member discuss a motion and then move to close debate? 

No. "[I]t is out of order for a member to debate the issue and end the remarks with a motion to close debate." The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, p. 66.




According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), to be in order, an amendment must in some way involve the same question that is raised by the motion to which it is applied. What is the name given to this principle?

"Germane" or "germaneness." RONR (12th ed.) 12:16.



If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what motion requires a two-thirds vote AGAINST to be sustained? 

Objection to the Consideration of a Question. "A two-thirds vote against consideration is required to sustain the objection."  Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) § 26:2(7).  


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), which of the following does not meet the definition of a "deliberative assembly": convention, mass meeting, committee, legislative body, board, assembly of an organized society?  

Committee. RONR (12th ed.) 1:9.  


Your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). If a motion is made to change the regular limits of debate while no question is pending, is it debatable?

Yes. Such a motion is not the subsidiary motion to Limit or Extend Limits of Debate, "but is an incidental main motion (although it requires a two-thirds vote for its adoption, just as the subsidiary motion does)." RONR (12th ed.) 15:4.  



Your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A committee makes a report to a board, and the report only contains information. Following the report, what parliamentary action should be taken?

Likely none. "Even if a report contains only an account of work done or a statement of fact or opinion for the assembly's information, it should be in writing.  Apart from filing such a report, however, no action on it is necessary and usually none should be taken." RONR (12th ed.) 51:53.  


An organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) is holding its annual multi-day convention. At the end of each day, the assembly recesses until the following morning, at which point there are introductory ceremonies, including an invocation and a supplemental report of the Credentials Committee. Should this be a "recess" or an "adjournment" each day?

Adjournment. "From the viewpoint of the effect of a recess or an adjournment on the procedure the next time the assembly is called to order, the difference is that at the conclusion of a recess there never are any 'opening' proceedings, but business is always immediately resumed where it was left off, just as if there had been no recess." RONR (12th ed.) 8:7.  


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), should nominations be seconded?

"No second is required, but sometimes one or more members will second a nomination to indicate endorsement." RONR (12th ed.) 46:6. 


Under The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure (4th Ed.)("Sturgis"), what is the name given to the five motions that do not present a new proposal "but concern actions that were previously taken"?

Restorative Main Motions. The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, p. 16.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), name at least one action that cannot be rescinded.

"(1) When it previously has been moved to reconsider the vote on the main motion, and the question can be reached by calling up the motion to Reconsider;
(2) when something has been done, as a result of the vote on the main motion, that is impossible to undo; or
(3) when a resignation has been acted upon, or a person has been elected to or expelled from membership or office, and the person was present or has been officially notified of the action."  RONR (12th ed.) 35:6. 


Your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). On an Appeal, what is the effect of a tie vote?

"A majority or a tie vote sustains the decision of the chair on the principle that the chair's decision stands until reversed by a majority." RONR (12th ed.) 24:3(7).



During a meeting, a member obtains recognition and states "this motion we're discussing is a complete waste of time and I move to table it." If the parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how should the presiding officer respond?

The motion to Lay on the Table should be ruled out of order. "The motion to Lay on the Table enables the assembly to lay the pending question aside temporarily when something else of immediate urgency has arisen or when something else needs to be addressed before consideration of the pending question is resume. . . ."  RONR (12th ed.) 17:1. "It is out of order to move to lay a pending question on the table if there is evidently no other matter requiring immediate attention." RONR (12th ed.) 17:13. 


The members at a meeting review the minutes of the prior meeting. An error in the minutes is noted and corrected. Where does Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) suggest that corrections to the minutes be noted?

"Any correction approved by the assembly is made in the text of the minutes being approved; the minutes of the meeting making the correction merely state that the minutes were approved 'as corrected,' without specifying what the correction was." RONR (12th ed.) 48:4(5). 


A large board with a parliamentary authority of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) is considering a proposal to "construct a new facility at a cost not to exceed $100,000." During debate, it becomes apparent that different members have different thoughts on the amount of money to spend on the facility. A member moves "to create a blank by striking out of the pending motion the sum '$100,000'" so that an unlimited number of proposals can be considered at the same time. Is the motion to create the blank debatable? Are suggestions to fill the blank debatable? 

While the motion to create a blank is undebatable (and requires a majority vote), "[p]roposals to fill a blank in a debatable motion are debatable." RONR (12th ed.) § 12:98. 


A nonmember begins to disrupt the monthly meeting of an organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). The chair orders the offending nonmember to leave the hall. If the nonmember does not feel that the order is fair, what can she do about it procedurally? 

"Nonmembers, on the other hand—or a particular nonmember or group of nonmembers—can be excluded at any time from part or all of a meeting of a society, or from all of its meetings. Such exclusion can be effected by a ruling of the chair in cases of disorder . . . .  Members, however, can appeal from the decision of the chair. . . ."  RONR (12th ed.) 61:7-8.


Your board of directors meets three times each year and follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A member wishes to delay the consideration of a matter until more information can be obtained. Can the motion to Postpone to a Certain Time be used to delay the matter until the next board meeting? 

No. "In a case where more than a quarterly time interval (see 9:7) will elapse between meetings (for example, in an annual convention of delegates or in a local society that holds only an annual meeting), a question cannot be postponed beyond the end of the present session." RONR (12th ed.) 14:6. 


According to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), which of the following parliamentary steps could be in order while the privileged motion to Adjourn is pending?

To make important announcements - Yes

To move to table the motion to adjourn - No

To move to recess for 5 minutes - No

To move to reconsider a previous vote - Yes

To move to limit debate on the motion to adjourn - No

To move to set the time for an adjourned meeting - Yes

RONR (12th ed.) 21:10.


A motion is being debated at the monthly meeting of an organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). After some discussion, the maker and seconder of the motion realize that a small wording change should be made to the motion. Do they have this right?

No more than other members of the assembly. “To modify a motion after it has been stated by the chair, the maker asks permission to do so, as in the case of withdrawal of a motion. If there is no objection, the chair states the question on the modified motion. If anyone objects, the chair must then determine whether an amendment equivalent to the requested modification would be in order. . . . A pending motion can be amended only by vote or unanimous consent of the assembly, even if the maker of the motion states that he ‘accepts’ the amendment.”  RONR (12th ed.) 33:19.


A committee has voted 8 to 3 in favor of presenting a motion to the assembly for adoption? May a committee member who does not agree with the report speak against the motion before the assembly, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

"But in debate on any written or oral report in the assembly, any member of the reporting committee who does not concur has the same right as any other member of the assembly to speak individually in opposition. No one can make allusion in the assembly to what has occurred during the deliberations of the committee, however, unless it is by report of the committee or by unanimous consent.” RONR (12th ed.) 51:65.


A new edition of the most popular parliamentary authority was released in 2020. What is the full title of the book?

Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition).


You are the member of an organization and have been asked to serve as parliamentarian. Are there any rights as a member that you must forego to accept this position, according to Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

"A member of an assembly who acts as its parliamentarian has the same duty as the presiding officer to maintain a position of impartiality, and therefore does not make motions, participate in debate, or vote on any question except in the case of a ballot vote." RONR (12th ed.) 47:55.


Your organization follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). Is it permitted for a member to speak against her own motion? Can she vote against it?

May vote against the motion; may not speak against it. "In debate, the maker of a motion, while he can vote against it, is not allowed to speak against his own motion." RONR (12th ed.) 43:25.


You are a member of an organization that follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). At last week's meeting, a motion was adopted that you now wish to repeal. However, you were not present at that meeting. Can you make the motion to Rescind? 

Yes. There are no restrictions on who may move the motion to Rescind (unlike the motion to Reconsider). RONR (12th ed.) 35:3. 


A member realizes just after a voice vote is announced that she accidentally voted on the wrong side of the question. If the organization’s parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what must the member do to change her vote?

“Except when the vote has been taken by ballot (or some other method that provides secrecy), a member has a right to change his vote up to the time the result is announced but afterward can make the change only by the unanimous consent of the assembly requested and granted, without debate, immediately following the chair's announcement of the result of the vote.” RONR (12th ed.) 45:8. 


If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a member "explain" his vote during voting?

“A member has no right to 'explain his vote' during voting, which would be the same as debate at such a time.” RONR (12th ed.) 45:7.


Your organization is considering a main motion. If your parliamentary authority is Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), is it in order to move to strike out one word at the beginning of the motion and one word at the end of the motion in the same motion to amend?

No. "When a motion to strike out certain words is made, it can be applied only to consecutive words . . . .  To strike out separated words, the best method is to make a motion to strike out the entire clause or sentence containing the separated words and insert a new clause or sentence as desired.  Separated words can also be struck out by separate motions or as part of a series of amendments offered in one motion." RONR (12th ed.) 12:47.


Your organization follows Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition). A proposed amendment to the bylaws is pending that will require a two-thirds vote for adoption. If an amendment from the floor is proposed to the bylaws amendment, what vote is required for adoption? 

Majority vote. RONR (12th ed.) 12:7(7).


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), is it permissible to write in the name of a candidate on the ballot, even if they were not nominated?

Yes. Unless there is governing document language to the contrary, "members still have the right, on the ballot, to cast 'write-in votes' for other eligible persons." RONR (12th ed.) 46:35.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the difference in the vote required to close versus to reopen nominations?

The motion to reopen nominations only requires a majority vote; while the motion to close nominations requires a two-thirds vote. According to RONR, the difference is "because (a) its adoptoin deprives members of a basic right--to nominate; and (b) the assembly must be protected against attempted abuse of the power to close nominations by a temporary majority." RONR (12th ed.) 31:2(7).


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the correct wording for the chair to state the question on an Appeal?

"The question is: 'Shall the decision of the chair stand as the judgment of the assembly [or 'club,' 'society,' 'board,' etc.]?" RONR (12th ed.) 24:10.


In Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the type of voting method (and there are many specific ones) where "on a single ballot when there are more than two possible choices, the second or less-preferred choices of voters can be taken into account if no candidate or proposition attains a majority"?

Preferential voting. RONR (12th ed.) 45:62.


You are attending a convention, and a number of delegates have departed on the final day. How will the departing delegates affect the quorum for the convention, if your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

Not at all. "In a body of delegates, such as a convention, the quorum is a majority of the number who have been registered as attending, irrespective of whether some may have departed." RONR (12th ed.) 40:2(3).


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), most of the rules in the book are applicable to bodies possessing characteristics that include the following:

  1. freedom to act in concert, meeting to determine, in full and free discussion, courses of action to be taken in the name of the entire group
  2. meets in a single room or area or under equivalent conditions of opportunity for simultaneous aural communication among all participants
  3. persons having the right to participate are ordinarily free to act according to their own judgment

What is the name of such an assembly?

A "deliberative assembly." RONR (12th ed.) 1:1.


What is the term in Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) for voting by postal mail, e-mail, fax or by proxy voting.

"Absentee Voting." RONR (12th ed.) 45:56.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), would it be appropriate for someone who was not nominated for an office to be elected during a ballot election?

"Strictly speaking, nominations are not necessary when an election is by ballot or roll call, since each member is free to vote for any elegible person, whether he has been nominated or not." RONR (12th ed.) 46:2.


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), when does an adopted bylaws amendment go into effect?

"[A]though the time when a bylaw amendment takes effect can be delayed by the assembly [through a proviso], the amendment becomes part of the bylaws immediately upon adoption." RONR (12th ed.) 57:17.


If a treasurer of an association that follows Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) is an "ex officio" member of the executive committee, what distinction is there between the treasurer and other board members? 

If a person is ex officio a member of a board or committee due to language in the governing documents, they are a full-fledged member with all rights to participate and vote (but no obligation). Ex officio simply defines that they are on the committee due to a position they hold (ex officio means “out of office”), but the membership is the same. “In the executive board of a society, if the ex-officio member of the board is under the authority of the society (that is, if he is a member, an employee, or an elected or appointed officer of the society), there is no distinction between him and the other board members.” RONR (12th ed.) 49:8.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), when would a motion to Limit or Extend the Limits of Debate be debatable?

The motion to Limit or Extend Limits of Debate is debatable if made when no main motion is pending (as an incidental main motion). RONR (12th ed.) 15:4. The motion still requires a two-thirds vote for adoption.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the vote required to suspend an ordinary standing rule (i.e., a rule that does not relate to parliamentary procedure)?

Majority. RONR (12th ed.) 25:16.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), in what circumstances can the presiding officer, if a member of the assembly, vote in a small board, when there are not more than about a dozen members present?

The presiding officer of a small board of directors (if a member of the body) is a full participant—the chair can "speak in informal discussion and in debate, and vote on all questions," although some politically choose not to do so. RONR (12th ed.) 49:21(7).


If there is no rule to the contrary and your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the longest that a member, having obtained the floor while a debatable motion is pending, can speak without consent of the assembly?

10 minutes. RONR (12th ed.) 43:8.

 


Here's a question from Notes and Comments on Robert's Rules, Fourth Edition, which uses a question-and-answer format to cover the most misused and asked-about provisions on Robert's Rules:

What is meant by a friendly amendment?

"The term 'friendly amendment' is described but once in Robert's (p. 162), and then only with regard to a proposed change that the maker thinks will be seen as acceptable (or 'friendly') to the maker of the original motion. Since a motion, once stated, belongs to the assembly, a 'friendly amendment' must either be accepted by the body through unanimous consent or moved as an amendment. (See 'Modify or Withdraw a Motion," page 97 of Notes and Comments)." 

Page 26, Notes and Comments on Robert's Rules, Fourth Edition


Do annual meetings approve minutes, if your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No.  "Minutes of one annual meeting should not be held for action until the next one a year later." RONR (12th ed.) 9:22. Instead, the executive board or a committee appointed for that purpose should be authorized to approve the minutes. RONR (12th ed.) 48:12. 


Can a member using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) rise to claim preference in being recognized after the chair has recognized another member to speak?

No. However, they can raise a Point of Order to that effect. RONR (12th ed.) 3:34.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a members speaking in debate yield their time to another speaker?

No. "Rights in regard to debate are not transferable. Unless the organization has a special rule on the subject, a member cannot yield any unexpired portion of his time to another member . . . . " RONR (12th ed.) 43:10.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) is the chair's reply to a parliamentary inquiry subject to an appeal?

No, since it is an opinion, not a ruling. RONR (12th ed.) 33:5. 


What is the vote required for an Objection to the Consideration of a Question under RONR?

A two-thirds vote against consideration is required to sustain the objection. RONR (12th ed.) 26:2(7).


Must a resolution have WHEREAS clauses under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

"It should be emphasized that neither rule nor custom requires a resolution to have a preamble, and one should not be used merely for the sake of form." RONR (12th ed.) 10:16.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), when should the chair of a meeting ask: "Is there any unfinished business?"

Never. "The chair should not announce the heading of Unfinished Business and General Orders unless the minutes show that there is some business to come up under it.  . . . He should not ask, "Is there any unfinished business?" but should state the question on the first item of business that is due to come up under the heading . . . ." ." RONR (12th ed.) 41:24.

 


If your organization follows Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how many times is each member entitled to speak on a debatable Appeal from the Decision of the Chair?

Once, except for the presiding officer who may speak twice. RONR (12th ed.) 24:3(5).


For an organization that follows Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), if an organization has no special rule relating to the length of speeches, how long may a member who has obtained the floor while a debatable motion is pending speak?

"Ten minutes unless he obtains the consent of the assembly." RONR (12th ed.) 43:8.


Once an agenda is adopted, what vote is required to change it?

A two-thirds vote, a vote of a majority of the entire membership, or unanimous consent. RONR (12th ed.) 41:63.


In order to protect the assembly from annoyances, can a chair operating under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) require a nonmember to leave the hall without a vote of the assembly?

Yes. RONR (12th ed.) 61:19.


Based on Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), should a board adopt a typical treasurer's report?

No. "No action of acceptance by the assembly is required--or proper--on a financial report of the treasurer unless it is of sufficient importance, as an annual report, to be referred to auditors. In the latter case it is the auditors' report which the assembly accepts." RONR (12th ed.) 48:24.


What is the consequence under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) of making a motion proposing to change the limits of debate made when no question is pending?

The motion is not the subsidiary motion to Limit or Extend Limits of Debate, but an incidental main motion, meaning the motion is debatable (but still requires a two-thirds vote). RONR (12th ed.) 15:4.


What is the technical term under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) where an adjournment dissolves the assembly, such as the close of a convention, or when the body will not be convened against unless called into special session or at a time prescribed in the bylaws or constitution?

Adjournment sine die (pronounced SIGN-ee DYE-ee). RONR (12th ed.) 8:2(6).


Can a Request for Information (formerly called a "Point of Information") interrupt a speaker?

Requests for Information "are in order when another has the floor if they require immediate attention. RONR (12th ed.) 33:2(3).


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is an "adjourned meeting"?

"An adjourned meeting is a meeting in continuation of the session of the immediately preceding regular or special meeting." RONR (12th ed.) 9:17.


Can a Parliamentary Inquiry in Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) interrupt someone who is speaking?

If it requires immediate attention, yes. RONR (12th ed.) 33:2(3).


Does Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) recommend that boards be composed of an odd number of members?

No. Though many people believe that boards are compelled to have an odd number of members, no such language exists in Robert's. A more important concern, possibly, is the number of VOTES, since in Robert's most votes are based on a percentage of members present and voting. In other words, if a board has 6 members, but one member is absent, the vote will be based on the five present and voting, and not a total possible number of board members. The same issue arises if a member abstains from voting.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), are seconds required for nominations to office?

No, "No second is required, but sometimes one or more membrrs will second a nomination to indicate enrosement." RONR (12th ed.) 46:6.


Is "unanimous consent" as defined by Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) 100% approval of the action by the total membership or only by those in attendance at the meeting?

Unanimous consent requires that no one in attendance object when the chair asks "Is there any objection . . . ?" RONR (12th ed.) 4:58-60. Such a method would not be appropriate if state statute or the governing documents require a vote to be by a percentage of the total membership or some basis other than those in attendance at the meeting and voting.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can a member on the floor rise to claim preference in recognition after the chair has recognized another member in debate?

No. However, there are purposes for which a member who has been assigned the floor may be interrupted. RONR (12th ed.) 42:7.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), are there minutes of a meeting held in executive session?

If business was transacted, yes. "Reading and approval of the minutes of an executvie session must take place only in executive session, unless that which would be reported in the minutes is not secret." RONR (12th ed.) 9:27.


If your parliamentary authority is Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what are the requirements to order that a vote be counted?

A motion to require that a standing vote be counted requires a second, is not debatable, is amendable (while rare, a different method could be chosen), and requires a majority vote. RONR (12th ed.) 30:1-6.


Is the motion to Divide the Question debatable in Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No. RONR (12th ed.) 27:3(5).


With Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition) as your parliamentary authority, what is the default quorum for a committee?

A majority of the members of the committee, unless otherwise provided in the Bylaws for a standing committee or by the rule of a parent body for a special commitee. RONR (12th ed.) 40:5.


According to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), how long may a member who has obtained the floor speak?

10 minutes, unless there is a special rule relating to the length of speeches. RONR (12th ed.) 43:8.


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), can the maker of a motion to Suspend the Rules interrupt another member who has the floor?

No. The motion to Suspend the Rules "is out of order when another has the floor." RONR (12th ed.) 25:2(3).


What is an "adjourned meeting" in Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

An adjourned meeting is "another meeting that will be a continuation of the session at which the motion is adopted." RONR (12th ed.) 22:9.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the name of "an assembly of delegates . . . chosen, normally for one session only, as representatives of constituent units or subdivisions of a much larger body of people in whose name the [assembly] sits and acts"?

Convention. RONR (12th ed.) 1:14.


Under Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is the name of "a meeting of an unorganized group that is announced as open to everyone (or everyone within a specified sector of the population) interested in a particular problem or purpose defined by the meeting's sponsors, and that is called with a view to appropriate action to be decided on and taken by the meeting body"?

 Mass meeting. RONR (12th ed.) 1:10.


If your bylaws provide that the parliamentary authority is the "current edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised," what edition is the parliamentary manual? 

Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), which became available on September 1, 2020.


Based on the new Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what information can be divulged from an executive session to nonmembers?

"The general rule is that anything that occurs in executive session may not be divulged to nonmembers (except any entitled to attend). However, action taken, as distinct from that which was said in debate, may be divulged to the extent--and only to the extent--necessary to carry it out. For example, if during executive session a member is expelled or an officer is removed from office, that fact may be disclosed to the extend described in 63:3." RONR (12th ed.) 9:26. 


In Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), what is a "Public Session"?

A "public session" of a public or semipublic body is governed by sunshine laws--that is, their meetings must be open to the public. Normally, such laws have no application to private, nongovermental bodies. . . .  In meetings of many public bodies, such as schol boards, the public may attend." RONR (12th ed.) 9:28-29. 


Referencing Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition), in what types of bodies do "most parliamentary rules apply, but certain modifications permitting greater flexibility and informality are commonly allowed"?

Small boards and any size committee. RONR (12th ed.) 1:24. 


Is an Appeal from the decision of the Chair amendable, according to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (12th Edition)?

No. RONR (12th ed.) 24:3.